Search the Web

The following sources are ones that we recommend to locate information on the Web.

[World Wide Web[

Search Engines

Search engines are computer programs designed to search for information on the Web.

TIPS: All of these search engines have AND default and use quotations around words to search for phrases. They also use OR to search for either of two or more words. For more tips, see UC Berkeley's Five-Step Search Strategy guide.

Google Search Immense, with search results ranked by "popularity".
More information and help with searching Google.
Try Google Scholar to find scholarly articles on your topic.
Yahoo Search 20+ billion pages, with search results ranked by "relevancy".
More information and help searching Yahoo.
exalead.com 8+ billion pages, with search results ranked by "popularity".
More information and help searching Exalead.

Subject Directories

Are large indexes of reviewed web sites. They are not as comprehensive as search engines but instead are created by human editors who review and select sites for inclusion in their directories on the basis of previously determined selection criteria. For more directories, besides the ones we recommend, check UC Berkeley's page.

TIP: Browse by subject or search using broad subject keywords.

ipl2 40,000+ librarian selected sites.
More information and help searching ipl2.
Infomine 125,000+ selected websites which provide access to university level research and educational tools on the Web.
More information and help searching Infomine.

Yahoo Search 2+ million sites. More information and help searching Yahoo Directory.

Based on the original Find Websites page from UC Berkeley Library.

Meta-Search Engines

Allow searches to be sent to several search engines all at once and then blend all of the results into one list. Because few meta-search engines search the largest and most useful search engine databases, use with caution. Here is a list of selected metacrawlers:

Dogpile
Yippy

For more information, check Search Engine Showdown's page on meta search engines.

Virtual Reference Libraries

Provide access to an electronic reference collection (e.g. almanacs, dictionaries, handbooks, indexes….) Try the following:

ipl2
Virtual Reference Library
Virtual Reference Shelf

International Search Tools

Search Engine Colossus
An international directory of search engines featuring links to search engines from 195 countries and 38 territories around the world.
Country-Specific Search Engines
A list of search engines by continent and country.
World Yahoos
Yahoo! International

Resources for Keeping Up to Date

Search Engine Watch
Search Engine Showdown

Search Engines

Google

Boolean Logic: AND is the default between words; capitalize OR: no ( ) or nested searching; - to exclude words, + or quotes to retrieve stop words
Phrase Searching: use double quotes for phrases
Truncation: no truncation is available
Limits: language, domain, date, filetype, and adult contents limits
Fields: see UC Berkeley's guide on limit commands in Google
Stop Words: all words searched, except for operators OR and AND if they are not in a phrase
Links to Help: Google Help Pages

Yahoo!

Boolean Logic: AND is the default between words; accepts AND, OR, AND NOT, NOT and ( ) for nesting; must be capitalized. Also - to remove words if not using Boolean
Phrase Searching: use double quotes for phrases
Truncation: no truncation is available
Limits: language, domain, date, filetype, and country
Fields: link, site, intitle, inurl, url, hostname
Stop Words: common words such as if, how, the etc. unless the words are in quotations
Links to Help: Yahoo Help Pages

Exalead

Boolean Logic: AND is the default between words; capitalize OR: ( ) for nested searching; - to exclude words, + or quotes to retrieve stop words
Phrase Searching: use double quotes for phrases
Truncation: use *
Limits: use Advanced search for limits
Fields: intitle, inurl, site, after: [time period], before: [time period] – use Advanced search for field searching
Stop Words: ignores frequently-occurring words such as: the, of, and, or
Links to Help: Web Search Syntax Help

ipl2

Boolean Logic: Accepts capital AND, OR, NOT, ( ); - to exclude words, + to retrieve stop words
Phrase Searching: use double quotes for phrases
Truncation: * represents zero or more alphanumeric characters;
? represents one alphanumeric character within a term
Field Searching: none

Infomine

Boolean Logic: AND is the default; also accepts OR, NOT and ( )
Phrase Searching: use double quotes for phrases
Truncation: use *. Stems automatically, which can be turned off in Advanced Search page.
Field Searching: subject, title, author, keyword and description

Academic Info

Boolean Logic: AND, OR (default), NOT, ( )
Phrase Searching: one, using quotes will make search fail
Truncation: none
Field Searching: none

Yahoo! Directory

Boolean logic: AND (default), OR, - to remove, + to include
Phrase Searching: use double quotes for phrases and to turn off Yahoo's automatic truncation
Truncation: use *, although there is automatic truncation
Field Searching: title and URL