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IEEE Citation Style: Citation within the text

Please note the following when you refer to references within the text:
  • A number enclosed in square brackets, eg. [1] or [26], placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference.

  • Citations are numbered in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered reference containing publication information about the source cited in the reference list at the end of the publication, essay or assignment.

  • Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references. No distinction is made between print and electronic references when citing within the text.

  • Each reference number should be enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, before any punctuation, with a space before the bracket.

Here are some examples of this kind of referencing:

"...end of the line for my research [13]."
"The theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]."
"Several recent studies [3, 4, 15, 16] have suggested that..."
"For an example, see [7]."

Last Updated: 06 February 2009