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Diacritics : Cross-References

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In the past, it was the practice at Queen's University to "spell out" certain diacritics in our bibliographic records. This included both headings and other text. When this practice was applied to headings, the version including the original diacritics was provided as a cross-reference.

In April 1996, this practice was reversed so that Queen's University practice was in sync with the North American National Libraries. However, due to the fact that our database has not fully been updated, authority records continue to include a cross-reference containing the "spelled out" version of the heading.

Not all diacritics were changed. In some languages, (e.g. French, Chinese), the modified characters were always used as they appear on the book.

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The following list describes the different cases that are still used to "spell out" cross-references.

Note that Finnish is not considered a Scandinanvian language.

Finnish, Hungarian and Modern Turkish materials were never spelled out.

Language Diacritic Exceptional Practice
German ä entered as ae
ö entered as oe
ü entered as ue
Exception: when 2 identical vowels with umlauts come together in a word, e.g. Böös entered as Boeos
Scandinavian (Does
not include Finnish)
ä entered as ae
ö entered as oe
Finnish ä entered as aa Place names only (otherwise leave as ä)
Danish, Norwegian ø entered as oe ..
Swedish, Norwegian å entered as aa ..
Icelandic á entered as aa ..
Gothic u entered as v
v entered as w

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Special Characters

Certain special characters are accepted "as is", since words using these characters file the same way when the special character used as they would if the character was replaced by the equivalent characters in the regular alphabet. Examples of such characters are: "æ", "Ð", etc.

For example, the character "þ" represents "th". When the information is entered in authority and bibliographic records, the special character appears. In the index, however, "th" appears instead.

In this particular case, the special character might be misread as a "p". Therefore, a cross-reference is created from that spelling.

100 0 |a þráinn Eggertsson, |d 1941-
400/1 1 |a Eggertsson, þráinn, |d 1941-
400/2 0 |a Práinn Eggertsson, |d 1941-
400/1 1 |a Eggertsson, Práinn, |d 1941-

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Section 2A, Subsection C, Part D53
Created August 5, 1997 by E. Read

Page maintained by Elizabeth A. Read, readel@queensu.ca. Created: 18/09/1998 Updated: 09-Oct-2003 06:39 PM